I am a bit nervous. In my proper hand, I am holding a priceless piece of human historical past. And that is not hyperbole. It is a weathered black binder, emblazoned with gold textual content on the entrance. In Gothic-style textual content it reads “A Leaf of The Gutenberg Bible (1450 – 1455).”
Sure, that Gutenberg Bible. These authentic pages, that date again to the Fifteenth century, have come to the SLAC Nationwide Accelerator Laboratory in Northern California to be blasted by a high-powered X-ray. Together with the Bible pages, a Fifteenth-century Korean Confucian textual content, a web page from the Canterbury Tales written within the 14th century and different western and jap paperwork are set to endure the barrage. Researchers are hoping that throughout the pages of those priceless paperwork lie clues to the evolution of 1 humankind’s most vital innovations: the printing press.
“What we’re making an attempt to study is the fundamental composition of the inks, the papers, and maybe any residues of the typefaces which might be utilized in these Western and Japanese printings,” mentioned imaging marketing consultant Michael Toth.
For hundreds of years, it was generally believed Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press round 1440 AD in Germany. He is thought to have printed 180 Bibles (fewer than 50 are recognized to exist in the present day). However extra just lately, historians have uncovered proof that Korean Buddhists started printing round 1250 AD.
“What is just not recognized is whether or not these two innovations had been fully separate, or whether or not there was an data circulate,” mentioned Uwe Bergmann, a professor of physics on the College of Wisconsin. “If there was an data circulate, it could have been, in fact, from Korea, to the west to Gutenberg.”
To place it extra plainly: Was Gutenberg’s invention primarily based, no less than partly, on Japanese expertise? That is the place the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Gentle Supply is available in.
A synchrotron is a particle accelerator that fires electrons into an enormous ring formed tunnel as a way to generate X-rays (versus). These X-rays give scientists the flexibility to review the structural and chemical properties of matter. To see precisely how they’re utilizing SSRL to review the priceless paperwork, watch the video above.
By firing the SSRL’s thinner-than-a-human-hair X-ray beam at a block of textual content on a doc, researchers can create two-dimensional chemical maps that element components current in every pixel. It is a approach known as X-ray fluorescence imaging, or XRF.
“The atoms in that pattern emit gentle, and we will observe which components that gentle should have come from on the periodic desk,” mentioned Minhal Gardezi, a PhD pupil engaged on the venture.
Although the SSRL’s X-rays are highly effective, they do not harm the paperwork, giving scientists a holistic view of the molecules that make up the traditional texts. In addition they give them the flexibility to search for hint metals that historians say shouldn’t be within the ink. That may point out they most likely got here from the printing press themselves. “That may imply we might study one thing concerning the alloys which had been utilized in Korea and by Gutenberg after which perhaps later by others,” Bergmann mentioned.
In the event that they discover similarities within the chemical compositions of the paperwork, that would contribute to ongoing analysis into the variations and similarities of the printing applied sciences, and whether or not there was an change of knowledge from East Asian cultures to the West.
Nonetheless, each scientist I talked with on the venture made it clear that even when similarities between the 2 paperwork are discovered, it would not definitively show one expertise influenced the opposite.
The paperwork are on mortgage from non-public collections, the Stanford Library and archives in Korea. The analysis at SLAC is a component of a bigger venture led by UNESCO known as From Jikji to Gutenberg. The findings will likely be introduced on the Library of Congress subsequent April.
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